Study Guide (go by the chapters assigned by your instructor)
(Different lecture sections break up the tests differently)
Click here to go to Class Videos (best way to prepare is to watch the videos)

ALWAYS use the videos if you missed a class AND for Exam reviews

Although the vocabulary is very important, you should
concentrate on the 'Be able to:' sections first!

Chapter 12 - Milky Way Galaxy

Reading Hints = read all of Ch 12.
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = More/different information provided in class lecture/videos.

Be able to define:
Milky Way
Milky Way Galaxy
Galactic Disk
Galactic Bulge
Galactic Center
Open or Galactic Cluster
Globular Cluster
Population I Stars
Population II Stars

Be able to:
- List the major parts of our galaxy, what is found in each part, and and know where they are located.
- Describe the shape and size of the Milky Way Galaxy
- Define the Sun's position in the Milky Way.
- Explain the differences between a Galactic Cluster and a Globular Cluster
- Explain the differences between a Population I and a Population II stars by location and age..


Chapter 13 - Galaxies

Reading Hints = read chapter 13 lightly.  Use lecture/videos as sequence.
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = We will NOT include Quasars here.

Be able to define:
Elliptical Galaxies
Disk Shaped Galaxies
Irregular Galaxies
Spectroscopic Parallax
Main Sequence Fitting
Cepheid Variable as distance indicator
Type I supernova as a distance indicator
Local Group

Be able to:
- Explain the differences between the 3 major types of galaxies
- Review the Geometric and Standard Candle methods of determining astronomical distances
- Explain how the Period-Luminosity Relation is used to determining distances outside our galaxy.
- Why is a Type I supernova used instead of a Type II for distance determination?


Chapter 14 - Cosmology

Reading Hints = read Ch 14 lightly
Class Lecture (Videos) Hints = The lecture will have the same basic info. presented in a little different sequence.  Quasars from Ch 13 will be mentioned here also.

Be able to define: (some of these may be in other chapters)
expanding universe
Hubble's Law
redshift of galaxies
cosmological redshifts
Local Group
Magellanic clouds
dwarf galaxies
Andromeda galaxy
cosmological principle
open universe
critical density
flat universe
closed universe
big bang model
Penzias and Wilson
cosmic background radiation
Local Supercluster
gravitational lensing
grand unified theories
Maarten Schmidt
properties of quasars
dark matter
dark energy

Be able to:

- state the cosmological principle and explain its significance.
- explain how the age of the universe is determined and discuss the uncertainties involve.
- summarize the leading evolutionary models of the universe and discuss the factors that determine whether or not the universe will expand forever.
- describe the cosmic microwave background radiation and explain its importance to our understanding of cosmology.